Introduce about the Fucoidan
Fucoidan is a substance found in the cell walls of certain seaweed species that is used medicinally for a wide variety of health purposes. You might take fucoidan to help treat high blood pressure, infections or allergies. Consult your doctor before you begin using fucoidan to discuss the correct dosage, as well as the potential side effects, drug interactions and other health risks.
Fucoidan is a type of sulfated polysaccharide found in several different species of brown seaweed, including bladderwrack and kelp. Fucoidan contains galactose, glucoronic acid, xylose and several other major constituents that give the substance its potential health benefits, says the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Fucoidan is also called sulfated alpha-L-fucan.
Fucoidan appears to have anti-tumor, anti-cancer and neuroprotective actions, according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Specifically, fucoidan acts to block cancer cells from developing and growing. Fucoidan also seems to provide anti-coagulant and anti-thrombotic effects that improve blood circulation. The substance offers actions that modulate the immune system and antioxidant actions as well.
Like kelp, fucoidan is sometimes recommended to help treat hypertension or high blood pressure. Fucoidan may also help treat allergies, bacterial and viral infections, and inflammation, as well as help to stimulate your immune system, according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Similarly, bladderwrack — a type of brown seaweed from which fucoidan is derived — can help to treat wounds and prevent infections, says the University of Michigan Health System. Kelp, another type of brown seaweed containing fucoidan, is sometimes recommended for treating viral infections like herpes, common colds and influenza, notes the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Talk with your physician before using fucoidan or any type of brown seaweed for medicinal purposes.
Because fucoidan is part of several kinds of brown seaweed, different types of seaweed offer additional medicinal uses due to their other constituents. For example, bladderwrack is also sometimes used to treat hypothyroidism, due to its high iodine content, as well as gastrointestinal disorders like diarrhea, constipation, acid reflux, indigestion and gastritis, says the University of Michigan Health System. Kelp is sometimes recommended to help prevent cancer, support HIV treatments and promote weight loss, notes the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. No conclusive medical research supports the use of brown seaweed or fucoidan to treat or prevent any health condition, however.
Although no major adverse reactions have been reported from using fucoidan, the substance may increase your bleeding risks if you’re also taking blood-thinning medications, warns the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. If you take large amounts of certain types of brown seaweed like kelp or bladderwrack, you could develop thyroid problems due to excessive iodine intake. Also, brown seaweed like kelp can contain possibly dangerous levels of toxic substances, like arsenic, that the plant absorbs from a contaminated water environment, potentially causing poisoning when you ingest it in large amounts, cautions the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Introduce about the Glutathione
Glutathione is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea. Glutathione is capable of preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides, and heavy metals. It is a tripeptide with a gamma peptide linkage between the carboxyl group of the glutamate side chain and the amine group of cysteine, and the carboxyl group of cysteine is attached by normal peptide linkage to a glycine.
Benefits of Using Glutathione Supplement
Skin Health and Appearance
As a premier anti-aging antioxidant, glutathione is widely used to help fight the signs of aging. Used both topically in glutathione creams as well as orally ingested in pill or capsule form, glutathione can yield immense skin health benefits.
Our skin is the first line of defense against infection and disease, this is why it has such a high concentration of antioxidants compared to deeper tissue. Subsequently, when our health is compromised the health and appearance of our skin suffers. This is why free radicals and oxidative damage are the biggest threats to young, healthy looking skin.
By supporting glutathione levels, you are improving the quality of your skin, translating into a healthy glow and a reduction in wrinkles and dry spots. It is also commonly used topically as a skin whitener, because of its ability to reduce melanin production. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its color, by reducing melanin production you can get the appearance of whiter and sometimes clearer skin. The efficacy of glutathione for skin whitening is a controversial subject, however many experts believe it is effective.
Immune system Improving
Glutathione is keystone for our immune system, when GSH levels are low, so is our immunity. By boosting GSH levels you are increasing your body’s ability to fight off infection and illness.
When we fall ill or are battling a disease, our glutathione stores are rapidly used up to help combat the problem, making it even more important to boost levels when our health is compromised. By boosting levels and maintaining them, you are preparing your body to deal with illness and infection before it has a chance to take hold and become an issue. So you can think of glutathione as one of the best preventatives as well as an effective treatment for many health conditions.
Everyone is concerned with aging, we want to stay young and vibrant for as long as possible. Well, aging may be inevitable, but feeling old is very preventable.
Free radicals and oxidative damage are some of the leading causes of aging. They damage our cells and bog down our body, leaving us feeling tired, old and generally unhealthy. They also contribute to the many undesirable cosmetic changes that we associate with old age.
Anti – Inflammatory
Inflammation is deadly, pure and simple. It is considered to be a leading cause of virtually every disease we know of. Yes it is a natural and even healthy immune response, but when it persists longer than necessary it can lead to severe health problems and chronic pain.
The ratio between oxidized and reduced glutathione in the body is indicative of overall toxicity as well as inflammatory response. Low GSH levels are associated with chronic inflammation, mitochondrial superoxide production and oxidative protein / DNA damage.
Individuals with chronic inflammatory problems like rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and psoriasis can relieve the symptoms and pain with anti-inflammatories.
Heavy Metal Chelator
Glutathione is a potent chelator, involved in cellular response, transport and excretion of toxic heavy metals. It is also a biomarker for toxic metal overload.
Chelating heavy metals is absolutely vital to our health, especially as we age. We absorb heavy metals each and every day, through the water we drink, foods we eat and even from amalgam fillings and antiperspirant deodorants.
Minimizing your exposure to these toxic metals can be helpful, but avoiding them altogether is almost impossible. The problem is compounded by the fact that our body is not equipped with the necessary tools to chelate all of these heavy metals, meaning they stick around and accumulate year after year. This is a contributing factor to many neurological and cognitive disorders as well as damaged cellular function.
With ample glutathione levels, the body is capable of excreting these heavy metals from the body, relieving the stress and damage they cause to our cells. If you can couple glutathione supplementation with healthy lifestyle choices that minimize toxic heavy metal exposure, you can dramatically improve cognitive and neurological development and function throughout the aging process.
The antioxidant benefits of glutathione are extraordinary, this is why it has earned the title of the body’s “Master Antioxidant”. Found in every cell, glutathione scours our body for toxins, free radicals and heavy metals that pose a threat to our health and well-being. Acting like a magnet, it gathers up all of these harmful substances and expels them from the body.
In its active or reduced form, GSH acts as a powerful antioxidant, once used up or oxidized, it begins the recycling process. The efficiency of this recycling process determines the ratio between reduced and oxidized GSH in the body. The more reduced glutathione in your system the better, it is an indication of low cellular toxicity levels and a strong immune function.
Because glutathione is heavily involved in the detoxification of our body, it is no surprise that it is found in its highest concentrations in the liver; the body’s most important detoxifying organ. Glutathione is also closely linked to liver health and function, when GSH levels are high, the workload put on the liver is reduced and it has a chance to repair itself. This helps reduce liver inflammation which is the cause of liver cirrhosis and impaired liver function.
Many people have compromised liver health due to poor diet, lifestyle choices and the constant toxic bombardment threatening our health everyday. Supporting liver health is one of the most beneficial things anyone could do for their health. Reducing body toxicity and supporting immune health
Heavy metals and free radicals cause severe damage to our brain, and they are particularly difficult to get rid of. This is due to the highly selective permeability of the blood brain barrier. There are only a select number of antioxidants capable of passing through the blood brain barrier to detoxify and repair the brain. Increasing the availability of these antioxidants can help provide the brain with the tools necessary to repair the damage done as well as prevent further damage.
Heavy metals pose a particularly high threat to our cognitive health and function. Accumulating in the brain over years of exposure and causing severe damage to the surrounding brain cells. This can lead to the progression of cognitive disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and numerous other issues.
Supporting glutathione levels can help detoxify the brain and ensure heavy metal deposits never get a chance to damage the brain severely. This can help ward off the root cause of many cognitive disorders and even improve cognitive function and memory throughout the aging process.
How To Choose The Best Skin Care Products For Skin Discoloration
Whether it’s hyperpigmentation, melasma, red, blotchy skin, or dark spots on face, there are many different types of skin discoloration, and choosing the best skin care products to treat them can really be a guessing most people. Products that treat these conditions seem to overflow the skin care market, and understanding how their ingredients work to fade discolorations seems even more time consuming. However, there is an easy way to choose the best skin care products for treating discolored skin, and it begins with understanding your own individual skin type and the issue you’re trying to treat. Many people make the mistake of treating these issues as one and the same thing. So they end up finding an anti aging serum or a facial moisturizer, hoping that the skin just needs a little nourishment to get better. But unfortunately, skin discoloration problems can vary significantly and fining the best skin care products to address these issues is essential to achieve positive results.
The Best Skin Care Products for Hyperpigmentation
Hyperpigmentation is a type of skin discoloration that occurs when the skin begins to produce too much melanin, which gives the skin color. When this happens, dark patches begin to appear on the face, neck, arms, and other areas of the skin that are often exposed to the sun on a daily basis. While almost anyone can suffer from hyperpigmentation, it happens more often to those who have darker or olive complexions. The best skin care products to combat hyperpigmentation contain hydroquinone, which is a skin-lightening agent that can make the dark patches less noticeable over time. Products that contain hydroquinone usually require a physician’s prescription, as this ingredient can be dangerous in larger doses. If you have sensitive skin, then the best skin care products to treat hyperpigmentation would be those that contain hydroquinone alternatives, such as kojic acid or azelaic acid.
The Best Skin Care Products for Melasma
Melasma, which is most common in women who are pregnant or women who are undergoing hormonal changes, causes small dark patches to appear on the skin, most commonly on the face. The symptoms of melasma are similar to hyperpigmentation, although the mechanics of how they affect your skin are somewhat different. The best skin care products to treat melasma are chemical peels and azelaic acid, as other skin lightening products like hydroquinone and tretinoin are not safe to use during pregnancy. Chemical peels will gradually lighten the effects of melasma by peeling away dead cells and other impurities that will cause your complexion to become more even. If you are pregnant, keep in mind that the best skin care products to treat melasma can be absorbed by the skin, so talk to your doctor before you use them so as to avoid inadvertently hurting your unborn child.
The Best Skin Care Products for Blotchy Skin
Red, blotchy skin can have many different causes, from acne to skin allergies. This type of skin problem is usually most common for those who have fair skin. Skin problems like eczema and rosacea can also cause blotchiness, especially when affected skin is exposed to extreme weather conditions. The best skin care products for treating blotchy skin are those that soothe inflammation and irritation. When you’re looking for the best skin care products for this type of issue, consider those that contain soothing oils, such as tea tree and chamomile. Choose creams and moisturizers that offer hydration but contain no fragrances or preservatives, as these ingredients may only further irritate the skin.
The Best Skin Care Products for Age Spots
Age spots that are caused by exposure to the sun most often appear on the face and arms and may grow darker over time and with further sun exposure. These marks are also sometimes called sun spots and form when the skin sends melanin to the area in order to protect the skin from UV rays. The best skin care products for age spots include skin-lightening products and creams that contain aloe vera and vitamin E, both of which can fade the appearance of the spots. Fading discolorations on the skin can be difficult, but using the best skin care products available for each individual condition will give you faster, more effective results.
What Is The Kojic Acid?
Kojic acid is a natural ingredient that comes from various fungi and organic substances. It is probably the most well known and effective skin lightening ingredient used in skincare treatments to fade dark spots & patches from Hyperpigmentation. Kojic acid has been shown to fade or erase age spots, freckles and sun damage when used as directed.
In fact, there are numerous types of hyperpigmentation problems that can successfully be treated with kojic acid as it del with the very start of pigmentation by inhibiting melanin production. In technical terms, kojic acid stops the antioxidant properties of the enzyme tyrosinase, which reacts with an amino acid called tyrosine to produce melanin. By preventing the production of melanin in this way, kojic acid can prevent and reverse the darkening of your skin, revealing a lighter, brighter and even toned look.
A lot of skin lightening products have a fairly short shelf life because they are not particularly stable. However, formulas that contain kojic acid tend to have a much longer shelf life because kojic acid is very stable and actually resists oxidation.
Kojic acid has been extensively researched by many dermatologists and scientists over the years and has been proven to be safe and very effective.
The Roles Of Vitamins In Cosmetics
Vitamins are very effective ingredients in cosmetic formulations. You can find numerous different types in products ranging from skin lotions, serums, gels and of course, supplements. The most popular vitamins used by skincare manufacturers are vitamins F, H, E, C, A & B3. They all have a variety of effects on the skin such as fading hyperpigmentation, clearing age spots, reducing wrinkles, decreasing inflammation, and providing protection from UV damage. Some of these vitamins have been shown to reverse photo-ageing and reduce the appearance of acne scars, dark spots and dry skin. Some also work as a treatment for acne and can have skin lightening effects.
So, let’s look at the different benefits for each Vitamin in a bit more detail:
Long known for its benefits to hair and skin, it is often referred to as the “beauty vitamin” Otherwise known as Biotin, Vitamin B7 or Coenzyme R, Vitamin H is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin and has great benefits for the skin.
Vitamin H maintains hydrated and moisturized skin and helps us keep a young, attractive appearance since it plays a huge part in maintaining the health of our hair, nails and skin.
Vitamin F, (Linoleic Acid) also commonly referred to as an essential fatty acid, is fat soluble and composed of basic categories, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids.
Vitamin F is essential to the growth and maintenance of healthy skin and nails – Without adequate amounts of vitamin F, your skin will be very dry, rough and dull.
Vitamin E is a naturally occurring antioxidant which is why it is frequently added to cosmetics and skin care products. Scientific studies have shown that Vitamin E (often known as, Tocopherol) has very specific benefits to the skin. It is a very effective antioxidant which can help reduce appearance of scars and dark marks. Vitamin E protects the skin from environmental pollution and has a protecting action against UV radiation and oxidative stress.
It is considered to be a protector ingredient as it is a major free-radical scavenger which is great as free radicals are extremely damaging to the skin tissue. Topical application of products containing vitamin E is said to result in skin brightening, smoothening, moisturizing, prevention of sun damage and premature skin ageing.
(also known as Ascorbic Acid)is a natural antioxidant that occurs in many different forms each with distinct properties. Several of these forms have been shown to reduce melanin formation and provide a skin lightening effect when applied topically. Vitamin C has the impressive status of being thought of by skincare experts as an anti-ageing and skin correcting powerhouse ingredient. Ascorbic acid vitamin C helps create younger-looking, firmer, smoother skin and patches of uneven skin tone can completely vanish.
Vitamin A, also known as Retinol – a type of retinoid. Retinoids are a group of chemical compounds related to vitamin such as retinyl palmitate.
When retinol (vitamin A) is applied to the skin, it is converted into retinoic acid which is the active form of the vitamin. This is the unique part that works effectively on skin cells in many beneficial ways. Retinol works to speed up the turnover of skin cells, fades hyperpigmentation marks, stimulates the production of collagen, and helps to hydrate the skin. Vitamin A is a bit of a skincare superstar! – it helps to increase the skin’s radiance and leaves the skin clearer and more even toned.
Vitamin B3, also known as Niacinamide is an effective skin lightening compound that works by inhibiting melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes. This ingredient often works best when combined with other skin lightening treatments. Vitamin B3 is also known to be effective in reducing acne.
5 Secrets To Improving Uneven Skins
If you carefully follow the steps as set out in the order below, you will be well on the way to achieving that perfect, radiant and even skin tone you have always dreamt of.
1. Exfoliate, exfoliate, exfoliate
Having an uneven skin tone is one of the top skin concerns of men and women these days, but we actually have a powerful method to instantly fight against this…exfoliate! The main benefit of exfoliating is that it helps rub away old, dull skin as well as those layers of dead skin cells – this will immediately reveal your bright, new skin that’s hiding underneath.
Salicylic acid is well-tolerated by those with uneven and patchy complexions. It can also improve the appearance of mild scarring, particularly mild acne scarring. Being a Beta-Hydroxy Acid, it is a highly effective superficial peeling agent and pore cleanser so it easily loosens and removes ageing cells, oil and debris attached to the skin surface. Used with a good skin lightening cream, this will help to reveal the new, lighter skin much more quickly.
We recommend using a Salicylic Acid based Exfoliator as the one Regular use of a premium exfoliator like this should also result in a decrease in fine lines, rough skin, and a reduction in pore size.
2. Apply a pure Vitamin C product
A good quality Vitamin C serum or supplement acts as an anti-oxidant – did you know the process of oxidation damages the skin cells? Vitamin C products are rich in anti-oxidants that repair and renew the cells to give the skin a radiant and healthier look. It also protects you from the sun – getting overexposed to the sun can cause hyperpigmentation and sun spotting. A vitamin C product will counteract any harmful effect of the sun.
After exfoliating, dampen your face with water and start by applying the serum to your face and neck. Or take a dedicated Vitamin C supplement daily. The application of Vitamin C is a crucial step in speeding up the process to a lighter, more even skin tone that many people do not know about. Most of the products of Beauty Solutions contain the vitamin C.
Please note: a vitamin C boost should not be used as an alternative to sun screen.
3. Apply a premium skin lightening cream
Use a good quality cream such as BEAUTY SOLUTIONS Whitening Care or W-NANO Care. The ingredients in a dedicated lightening cream should help to inhibit melanin formation. Increases in Melanin can cause hyperpigmentation, dark marks and age spots.
Our product contains all natural ingredient that is incredibly effective at inhibiting Melanin and can be very beneficial in treating melasma and hyperpigmentation characterized by a dark or tan skin discoloration. So, apply your skin lightening cream after Vitamin C application by gently rubbing into your skin until fully absorbed.
After exfoliating your skin and applying products with effective pigment correcting ingredients, your skin may become dry and in need of extra hydration. Skin moisturizers are critical for maintaining your skin’s natural protective moisture barrier and banish signs of dryness. Nothing hydrates and firms up skin cells better than hyaluronic acid*. So, take advantage of the acid’s moisturizing properties with a skin care treatment featuring it as an active ingredient.
5. Apply Sunscreen
The application of exfoliating and skin lightening products may increase your skin’s sensitivity to the sun so I strongly recommend that you apply a good quality sun protecting lotion with at least a sun protection factor of 15. This should be applied daily as the final step in this process. I am sure that if you follow these five top tips, you will see a huge reduction in the dark marks and hyperpigmentation on your skin, giving you the appearance and self- confidence that you deserve!
BONUS TIP: Dietary Supplements
This is an optional extra step in achieving the perfect skin tone. It is not essential but will certainly help by boosting the results of the 5 steps above. If you take a dedicated pigment correcting food supplements, then the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals will work from the inside as the topical products get to work on the outside. The supplements can also help to protect your skin from further skin damage.
How To Treat Hyperpigmentation
First of all – what is Hyperpigmentation?
Human skin contains certain cells that produce melanin, a substance that gives skin its color. Too much melanin leads to hyperpigmented skin, common examples of which include freckles, dark patches, sun damage and age spots.
What causes Hyperpigmentation?
The main causes are from sun exposure, hormone fluctuations, acne scars or any trauma to the skin.
So how can you treat hyper-pigmentation?
There are three methods which should all ideally be applied. That is: exfoliating the skin, applying skin lightening creams or serums and finally, the use of sunscreen SPF30 or more.
Exfoliate with products that contain Glycolic acids or Salicylic acids. Exfoliation rids the skin’s surface of cells with pigment (melanin). Retinol is another very effective ingredient as it helps increase exfoliation.
After exfoliating, you should apply a dedicated skin lightening cream or serum that contains active ingredients which will stop melanin production such as arbutin, kojic acid, mulberry extract and licorice extract.
Anti-oxidants such as vitamin C work very well too and can also help protect the skin from further damage.
Finally, you should always apply sunscreen of SPF30 or more. This will help to protect the skin from further sun damage. This is especially important as your skin may be more sensitive to the sun after applying the treatments.
It is also well worth considering taking a special food supplement that contains essential vitamins and antioxidants, shown to improve and protect the skin. These types of supplements can work faster than topical skin creams as it works from the inside and they have many other benefits.
One thing to keep in mind, is that all these methods don’t work overnight! It takes time, and therefore patience, to get results. But it will be well worth it in the end as you will start to see a much clearer, brighter and more even skin tone.
What is Nano Technology?
Nanotechnology is an umbrella term referring to the ability to expertly use matter at the atomic, molecular and supramolecular scale (i.e. nanoscale). Nanotechnology holds considerable promise for many different disciplines and it is a growing area of research. At the nanoscale, some materials exhibit additional or different properties as compared to larger materials with the same composition.
Nanomaterials are used in a wide range of innovative applications and products, including Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated products such as foods, drugs, medical devices and cosmetics and personal care products. While FDA does not have a legal definition for either nanotechnology or nanomaterials, scientists usually refer to materials that have at least one measured dimension in the range of 1-100 nanometers (1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter) as a nanomaterial. To put this into perspective, the head of a pin is about 1 million nanometers wide and a human hair is about 80,000 nanometers wide.
Nanoparticles have been naturally occurring for all of human history. They are found in volcanic ash, ocean spray, fine sand and dust, and are the byproduct of human activities, such as welding fumes and the burning of wood; even homogenized milk is a nanoemulsion. We are constantly exposed to incidental nanoparticles from sources that include cars, your home stove and outdoor fires.
Why are Nanomaterials being developed?
Nanoscale materials are being developed because they can have chemical, physical and biological properties that differ from their chemically identical but larger-scale counterparts. Products containing nanoscale materials may offer advantages over similar products that contain the same materials on a larger scale.
Some of the advantages that have been enabled by the use of nanoscale materials include:
- improved texture
- enhanced stain resistance
- Improved aesthetics
- longer shelf life
- improved UV protection
Consumer products that may incorporate nanoscale materials include clothing, wear-resistant coatings and paint, electronics and personal care products.
Why are Nanoscale materials used in personal care products?
The application of nanotechnology to products regulated by the FDA, including cosmetics and over-the-counter drugs (OTCs), provides health and other benefits to consumers. The use of nanoscale materials in such consumer products is not new. For example, nanoscale particles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been used in sunscreens for many years.
Remember the old pictures of lifeguards with noses coated in thick white sunscreen? Today, small nanoparticles are used to formulate sunscreens that contain a protective barrier that is easier to apply and has a more pleasing texture than earlier opaque versions with larger particles. This leads to greater consumer acceptance and use. These factors ultimately contribute to a greater public health benefit by protecting individuals from the harmful effects of the sun, including skin aging and skin cancer.
Did you know? Cosmetics manufactured using nanomaterials are subject to the same legal requirements as any other cosmetics.
Nanotechnology in Cosmetics
The applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials can be found in many cosmetic products including moisturizers, hair care products, make up and sunscreen. A report from Observatory Nano (this report looks into some of the nanotechnologies used in the cosmetic industry and provides an overview of activity in this area) describes two main uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics:
- Nanoparticles in cosmetics as UV filters: The first of these is the use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main compounds used in these applications. Organic alternatives to these have also been developed.
- Nanoparticles in cosmetics drug delivery agents: The second use is nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and Niosomes are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Newer structures such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers have been found to be better performers than liposomes. In particular, nanostructured lipid carriers have been identified as a potential next generation cosmetic delivery agent that can provide enhanced skin hydration, bioavailability, stability of the agent and controlled occlusion. Encapsulation techniques have been proposed for carrying cosmetic actives. Nanocrystals and nanoemulsions are also being investigated for cosmetic applications. Patents have been filed for the application of dendrimers in the cosmetics industry.
A draft guidance documents from the FDA “Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products” discusses the FDA’s current thinking on the safety assessment of nanomaterials when used in cosmetic products. Key points include:
The legal requirements for cosmetics manufactured using nanomaterials are the same as those for any other cosmetics. While cosmetics are not subject to premarket approval, companies and individuals who market cosmetics are legally responsible for the safety of their products and they must be properly labeled.
To conduct safety assessments for cosmetic products containing nanomaterials, standard safety tests may need to be modified or new methods developed.